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Starting X Server in Headless Linux
JxBrowser library can be used in the headless Linux environment, given the X server is running.
Here is how to start the X Server:
1. Install Xvfb server
in your headless Linux, e.g. Ubuntu Server 16.04.2 LTS:
sudo apt-get install xvfb
2. Run your Java application
By starting the standalone X server:
Xvfb :1 -screen 0 800x600x24+32 & export DISPLAY=:1 java -jar application.jar
or using the
xvfb-run --server-args="-screen 0 800x600x24+32" java -jar application.jar
It is mandatory to specify the screen size and the color depth.
What about the “headless” flag?
Chromium 58 and higher support
--headless command line flag which works for Linux only.
The flag allows to run Chromium in Linux headless environment without
starting the X server.
This flag is designed for the case when you just need to run Chromium in
headless environment, load some URL, and attach to the loaded web page
using DevTools via the
--remote-debugging-port switcher. For example:
chrome --headless --remote-debugging-port=9222 https://chromium.org
In such case you load the
localhost:9222 web page in a web browser
application and work with the loaded web page using DevTools.
As you can see, the
--headless command line flag is designed to be
used when you need to load a single web page and work with it via
DevTools. We checked Chromium’s source code and figured out that this
flag forces Chromium to use a separate, limited version of the Chromium
API that does not support most (~80-90%) of the features used in
This is why this flag is NOT supported by JxBrowser, and we recommend you to start the X server in order to use JxBrowser in a headless Linux environment.